Papilloma Virus: Recognizing It With The Pap Smear And Colposcopy

HPV Tests, or human papillomavirus, is a DNA virus. Fortunately, only a few women infected with HPV will develop cancer. In most cases, the immune system can fight the infection in about 2 years.

This means that women positive for HPV infection do not have to worry about having “cancer”. But must consider themselves a population at risk of developing it.

It is essential for this reason:

  • Rely on the screening system, which aims to catch problems relating to HPV before they become a problem.
  • have careful monitoring
  • maintain a careful lifestyle
  • transmission), and carry out vaccination at a young age.

Why and when is it advisable to have a pap exam?

How is it performed?

  • How is it done?
  • Where can these HPV DNA tests be performed?
  • Why and when is it advisable to have a pap smear?

The Pap smear is the classic exam screening for HPV.

It aims to identify cervical cells altered by papillomavirus infection. The Pap smear does not detect the virus but highlights the cellular lesions it can produce.

A positive Pap smear will lead to a specific exam. But should not cause concern. It just needs to set in motion a more careful control system (carry out a colposcopy)

Furthermore, the HPV Variant test is a new virus detection method. However, it does not check the cellular lesions, so the result is either positive or negative. A positive result means you are at risk.

Colposcopy is a second-level test after a positive pap test result.

However, it aims to confirm the presence of cervical lesions at the tissue and not the cellular level. It indicates the need to perform a targeted biopsy to define the degree of the lesion and the possible need for surgical intervention via conization/LEEP or other procedures.

How is it done?

The Pap smear (like the HPV DNA test) is a simple and painless exam.

On an outpatient basis. A midwife or gynaecologist can do this.

To carry out the exam, it is therefore necessary:

  • position yourself in the classic lithotomy position on the gynaecological table
  • introduce the speculum to highlight the cervix
  • Collect the cervical cells using two spatulas (cytobrush and Ayre spatula). However, the collection of cells using the spatulas is painless: the Ayre spatula will collect the cells of the exocervix by rotating 360 degrees, and the cytobrush will collect the cells of the endocervix by entering the first section of the cervical canal)
  • The cells are collected with the two spatulas to prepare the slide. The doctor checks the slide under high magnification using a microscope to trace any reactions from HPV.
  • For HPV DNA Tests, the collected cells are examined by Medicines Online.

How to do it?

It is important to carry out the Pap smear STD Panel test. (like the HPV Type test) Without menstrual flow, the blood could make cell analysis impossible. Avoid sexual intercourse or the introduction of creams, ovules and douches into the vagina. Sperm or pharmacological material could damage the investigation.

How is it done?

Colposcopy is the second level of investigation in case of a positive result.

Check the lesions on the cervix using two specific solutions. The colposcope is the instrument used. It is a system of lenses and coloured filters that allows you to see the cervix at higher magnifications than direct vision.

The biopsy may reveal low-grade infection (CIN 1) or high-grade lesions (CIN2-CIN 3).

For a low-grade lesion (CIN1), the patient does a pap smear and colposcopy every six months to evaluate the clinical progress. However, the lesion will regress over the next 24 months. But in rare cases of persistence or evolving into a high-grade lesion. Excision of the affected tissue (Conization/LEEP).

However, in the case of a high-grade lesion (CIN2).

In case of lesion, surgery is needed.

Colposcopy, like the Pap or HPV Home test, is also painless in the office.

For the exam, you will need the following:

  • position yourself in the classic lithotomy position on the gynaecological table
  • introduce the speculum to highlight the cervix
  • Colour the cervix with two specific solutions.

1. First, cotton wool soaked in the acetic acid solution touches the cervix, wetting it. If the cervix is ​​healthy, the tissue remains pink; otherwise, if areas damaged by HPV are present, these will become white.

2. the second step involves colouring the cervix with an iodine solution: the tissue will become completely dark if healthy, or rather, it will not colour in the areas of alteration

Forceps remove the tissue and check to identify lesions. And the biopsy may feel like a small pinch, sometimes followed by menstrual-like uterine cramps.

Where is it done?

The doctor can perform the Pap, HPV Type test, and colposcopy at local, NHS, or private clinics.

National STD screening, which every woman should rely on for cancer, exists and is of fundamental importance.